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This is an article published by the National Institute on Aging about calorie restriction and fasting in 2018 and it's no very conclusive on the benefits of fasting, at least *for people that are not overweight*.

*Calorie Restriction and Fasting Diets: What Do We Know?*
https://www.nia.nih.gov/news/calorie-restriction-and-fasting-diets-what-do-we-know

Nearby the end of the article they write the following:

*Why the Science Is Uncertain*
Despite a lot of research on calorie restriction and fasting, there are no firm conclusions about the benefits for human health. Here's a summary of the reasons why:

Most of the relevant studies have been conducted in laboratory and animal models, from yeast cells to primates. These findings do not necessarily apply to humans.
Most clinical trials with humans have been short (a few weeks or months), conducted in overweight subjects, and focused on weight loss rather than aging processes. The longest trial so far (CALERIE) lasted 2 years, which isn't long enough to learn about the long-term health effects of calorie restriction.
These clinical trials have typically recruited adults age 60 or younger, so the results don't necessarily apply to children or people older than age 60.
A tremendous number of organic and chemical processes keep the human body functioning. Researchers must sort out how these processes are affected under different dietary conditions.
Humans are quite different from each other in terms of gender, size, age, genetics, environment, lifestyle, and other factors. An eating pattern that's found to help one person might not have the same effect on another.
With animal studies, the researcher provides the food so knows how much has been eaten and when. This kind of reliable evidence is harder to obtain in human studies. Although new techniques can objectively measure overall caloric intake, it is still challenging to get accurate reports of diet information from individuals going about their lives.

More than fasting or intermittent fasting, we need autophagy, which occurs after 50 or 60 hours without eating. That is why I try not to eat for 3 continuous days once per month!

Again what the NIA says in a more readable form:

*Why the Science Is Uncertain*
Despite a lot of research on calorie restriction and fasting, there are no firm conclusions about the benefits for human health. Here's a summary of the reasons why:

* Most of the relevant studies have been conducted in laboratory and animal models, from yeast cells to primates. These findings do not necessarily apply to humans.

* Most clinical trials with humans have been short (a few weeks or months), conducted in overweight subjects, and focused on weight loss rather than aging processes. The longest trial so far (CALERIE) lasted 2 years, which isn't long enough to learn about the long-term health effects of calorie restriction.

* These clinical trials have typically recruited adults age 60 or younger, so the results don't necessarily apply to children or people older than age 60.

* A tremendous number of organic and chemical processes keep the human body functioning. Researchers must sort out how these processes are affected under different dietary conditions.

* Humans are quite different from each other in terms of gender, size, age, genetics, environment, lifestyle, and other factors. An eating pattern that's found to help one person might not have the same effect on another.

* With animal studies, the researcher provides the food so knows how much has been eaten and when. This kind of reliable evidence is harder to obtain in human studies.

* Although new techniques can objectively measure overall caloric intake, it is still challenging to get accurate reports of diet information from individuals going about their lives.

On the other hand, *Multi-day fasting isn't worth downsides like hunger and loss of muscle mass, according to a nutritionist*
https://www.insider.com/extreme-fasting-not-worth-it-for-most-people-nutritionist-2020-7
"Some fasting practices, like time-restricted feeding or intermittent fasting, have proven benefits. *But more extreme forms of fasting, which severely restrict calories or macronutrients like protein, or that extend into multi-day fasts, can have serious side effects.*"

Here some recommendations: https://www.longevityadvice.com/expert-longevity-diet/

What do you think?
https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2022/07/studies-that-use-epigenetic-clocks-must-obtain-other-health-data-as-well/

https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.204150 Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 13 pp 5311—5344
Epigenetic clocks and their association with trajectories in perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among US middle-aged and older adults

Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 13 pp 5366—5375
High TRB3 expression induces chondrocyte autophagy and senescence in osteoarthritis cartilage https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.204066 It is interesting to understand that epigenetic actions on different proteins or their exaggerated expression can act on different tissues and cells, causing cell senescence and apoptosis. The interesting thing for me is that the new paradigm of interventional epigenetics can generate many benefits in different cells and tissues.