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🌟 FULL FORMS 🌟 -

💫1. ICSI : Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection
💫2. IVF : In-vitro fertilisation
💫3. ET : Embryo transfer
💫4. SCA : Sickle cell Anaemia
💫5. PKU : Phenylketonuria
💫6. NHC : Non-histone Chromosomal proteins
💫7. snRNA : Small Nuclear RNA
💫8. hnRNA : Heterogenous Nuclear RNA
💫9. sRNA : Soluble RNA
💫10. UTR : Untranslated Regions
💫11. HGP : Human Genome Project
💫12. ELSI : Ethical, Legal & Social Issues
💫13. BAC : Bacterial Artificial Chromosome
💫14. YAC : Yeast Artificial Chromosome
💫15. ESTs : Expressed Sequence Tags
💫16. SNPs : Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
💫17. VNTR : Variable Number of Tandem Repeats
💫18. SCRR : School of Cytogenetics & Radiation Reserch
💫19. IARI : Indian Agricultural Research Institute (New Delhi)
💫20. CMI : Cell - Mediated Immunity
💫21. MALT : Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue
🥺Important Scientists & their theories frm Molecular Basis

1) Fredrick Griffith (1928) - Transformation Principle

2)Avery,Mcleoid &Maclarty (1933-44) - Neither Protein Nor Rna its Dna

3)Harshy Chase(1952) - Bacteriophage exp

4)Maselson &Sthal -Semi cons model of rep(prokaryotes)

5)Taylor -Vicia Fabea Plant (Eukaryotes)

6)Willkins - X ray Crystallography

7)Rosen & Franklin -Helical st of Dna

8)Watson & Crick(1953) -Double helical Dna

9)Crick - Central Dogma

10)Benzer - Benzer Model of Dna (Cistron,Recon ,Muton)

11) Jacob & Monad (1961) - Lac Operon

12)Nirenberg & Khorana - cracking of genetic code

13)Nirenberg - Dicephering Of Codon

14)Hugo De Varies - Mutation Theory

15)Holley - Clover leaf Model

16)Gammow - Codon Is Triplet


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🌟 FULL FORMS 🌟 -

💫1. ICSI : Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection
💫2. IVF : In-vitro fertilisation
💫3. ET : Embryo transfer
💫4. SCA : Sickle cell Anaemia
💫5. PKU : Phenylketonuria
💫6. NHC : Non-histone Chromosomal proteins
💫7. snRNA : Small Nuclear RNA
💫8. hnRNA : Heterogenous Nuclear RNA
💫9. sRNA : Soluble RNA
💫10. UTR : Untranslated Regions
💫11. HGP : Human Genome Project
💫12. ELSI : Ethical, Legal & Social Issues
💫13. BAC : Bacterial Artificial Chromosome
💫14. YAC : Yeast Artificial Chromosome
💫15. ESTs : Expressed Sequence Tags
💫16. SNPs : Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
💫17. VNTR : Variable Number of Tandem Repeats
💫18. SCRR : School of Cytogenetics & Radiation Reserch
💫19. IARI : Indian Agricultural Research Institute (New Delhi)
💫20. CMI : Cell - Mediated Immunity
💫21. MALT : Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue
🔷 Increasings or Decreasing Order

✨01. Melting point=
Li > Na > K > Rb > Cs

✨02. Colour of the flame=
Li-Red, Na-Golden, K-Violet, Rb-Red, Cs-Blue, Ca-Brick red, Sr-Blood red, Ba-Apple green

✨03. Stability of hydrides =
LiH > NaH > KH > RbH> CsH

✨04. Basic nature of hydroxides=
LIOH < NaOH < KOH < RbOH < CsOH

✨05. Hydration energy=
Li> Na > K> Rb > Cs

✨06.) Reducing character=
Li > Cs > Rb > K > Na

✨07. Stability of +3 oxidation state=
B> Al > Ga > In > T1

✨08. Stability of +1 oxidation state= Ga < In < TI

✨09. Basic nature of the oxides and hydroxides=
B< Al< Ga < In < TI

✨10. Relative strength of Lewis acid= BF3 < BCl3 < BBr3 < BI3

✨11. Ionisation energy=
B> Al <Ga > In <TI

✨12. Reactivity=
C<Si< Ge < Sn <Pb

✨13. Metallic character=
C< Si < Ge < Sn < Pb

✨14. Acidic character of the oxides=
Co2 > SiO2 > Ge02 > SnO2 > PbO2

✨15. Reducing nature of hydrides=
CH4 < SiH4 < GeH4 < SnH4 < PbH4

✨16. Thermal stability of tetrahalides=
CCl4> SiCl4> GeCl4> SnCl4 > PbCl4

✨17. Oxidising character of M+4 species=
GeCl4 < SnCl4 < PbCl4

✨18. Ease of hydrolysis of tetrahalides=
SiCl4 < GeCl4 < SnCl4 < PbCI4

✨19. Acidic strength of trioxides=
N203 > P2O3 > As2O3

✨20. Acidic strength of pentoxides=
N2O2 > P2O2> As202 > Sb2O2 > Bi̟202

✨21. Acidic strength of oxides of nitrogen=
N2O < NO <N2O3 <N2O4 < N2O5

✨22. Basic nature/ bond angle/ thermal stability and dipole moment of hydrides=
NH3 > PH3 > AsH3 > SbH3 > BiH3

✨23. Stability of trihalides of nitrogen=
NF3 > NCl3 > NBr3

✨24.Lewis base strength=
NF3 <NCl3 <NBr3 < NI3

✨25. Ease of hydrolysis of trichlorides=
NCl3 > PCI3 > AsCl3 > SbCl3 > BiCl3

✨26. Lewis acid strength of trihalides of P, As, and Sb=
PCl3 > ASCl3 > SbCl3

✨27. Lewis acid strength among phosphorus trihalides
PF3 > PCl3 > PBr3 > PI3

✨28. Melting and boiling point of hydrides=
H2O > H2Te > H2Se >H2S

✨29. Volatility of hydrides=
H2O < H2Te < H2Se < H2S

✨30. Reducing nature of hydrides=
H2S < H2Se < H2Te

✨31. Covalent character of hydrides=
H2O < H2S < H2Se < H2Te

✨32. The acidic character of oxides (elements in the same oxidation state)=
SO2 > SeO2 > TeO2 > PoO2
SO3 > SeO3 > TeO3

✨33. Acidic character of oxide of a particular element (e.g. S)=
SO < SO2 < SO3
SO2 > TeO2 > SeO2 > PoO2

✨34. Bond energy of halogens=
Cl2 > Br2 > F2 > I2

✨35. Solubility of halogen in water =
F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2

✨36. Oxidising power=
F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2

✨37. Enthalpy of hydration of X ion=
F- > Cl- > Br- >I-

✨38. Reactivity of halogens:=
F> Cl> Br > I

✨39. Ionic character of M-X bond in halides
= M-F > M-Cl > MBr > M-I

✨40. Reducing character of X ion:=
I- > Br- > Cl- > F-

✨41. Acidic strength of halogen acids=
HI > HBr > HCI > HF

✨42. Reducing property of hydrogen halides
= HF < HCL < HBr < HI

✨43. Oxidising power of oxides of chlorine
= Cl2O > ClO2 > Cl206 > Cl2O7

✨44. Decreasing ionic size=
02- > F- > Na+ > Mg2+

✨45. Increasing acidic property=
Na2O3 < MgO < ZnO< P205

✨46. Increasing bond length=
N2 <02 < F2 < CL2

✨47. Increasing size=
Ca2+ < Cl- < S2-

✨48. Increasing acid strength=
HClO < HClO2 < HClO3 < HClO4

✨49. Increasing oxidation number of iodine=
HI< I2 <ICl <HIO4

✨50. Increasing thermal stability=
HOCl < HOClO < HOClO2 < HOClO3
»»--☆-

Important term📍
1: Anti Histamine = Use in Allergy
2: Analgesic = Pain Killer
3: Anti Pyretic = Fever
4: Anti Septic = Pus
5: Anti Biotic = Infection
6: Anti Anaemia = Low blood
7: Anti Emetic = Vomting
8: Anti Acid = Stomach Burn
9: Anti Flantulents = Gases
10: Anti Spasmodic = Abdominal pain
11: Anti Anginal = Cardiac pain
12: Anti Arhthnic = Cardiac Activity
13: Ant Hypertensive = BP
14: Anti Lipemic = Cholesterol+Lipids
15: Anti Coagulant = Norrowing of Blood
16: Anti Depressant = Depression

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🔰 Role of nutrients and their deficiency Symptoms 🔰

#Nitrogen

▪️Impart green colour to plant encourages vegetative growth

▪️ Nitrogen is essential constituent of protein

▪️ Constituent of Protoplasm of chlorophyll and coenzyme.

▪️ Play important role in
synthesis of auxin

#Deficiency

▪️ Lower leaves become yellow and dries.

▪️V shaped chlorosis on older leaves or yellowing at tip.

#Disease

▪️Starvation disease due to nitrogen deficiency.

▪️Buttoning in cauliflower.

#Phosphorous

▪️Increase the disease resistance.

▪️ Enhance new cell formation and necessary for root development.

▪️Required for grain formation and maturity of grains.

▪️Phosphorus is essential constituent for nucleic acid and phytin.

▪️Most essential functions are energy storage and transfer energy act as "energy currency".

#Deficiency

▪️Due to deficiency of single element the life cycle of plant can't be completed hence (Agricultureexamslibrary) Phosphorus is called " key of life "

▪️Deficiency imparts dark green colour in leaves.

▪️Later develops red purple colourration.

#Disease

▪️Sickle leaf diseases.

#Potassium

▪️Most essential function of K+ is stomata regulation.

▪️Provides disease resistance in plants.

▪️Cofactor for enzymes.

▪️Formation and translocation of Sugars.

▪️Helps in chlorophyll formation.

#Deficiency

▪️Spot of dead tissue at tips.

▪️Scorching and burning on margins of autumn leaves.

#Disease

▪️Rottle/ dieback disease.

#Calcium

▪️ It is constituent of cell wall

▪️ Calcium is a mobile in plants and deficiency symptoms appear on Meristem tip portion.

# Deficiency

▪️ Terminal bud die

#Disease

▪️Tip hooking.

▪️ Blossom end rot of tomato(BER).

▪️Popping in groundnut.


#Magnesium

▪️ Essential constituent of chlorophyll.

▪️ Magnesium is a constituent of chlorophyll.

▪️Chlorosis between veins.

#Disease

▪️Sand -drown disease of tobacco.

#Sulphur

▪️ Sulphur oxidizing Bacteria is Thiobacillus.

▪️Sulphur is essential for oil seed and pulses because it improves oil content and protein content in oil seeds and pulses, respectively.

#Disease

▪️Akiochi disease of rice due to Excess of hydrogen sulphide.

▪️Tea yellow disease of tea.

#Iron

▪️Fe is the component of nitrate reductase.

▪️Required for nitrogen fixation.

▪️During respiration act as O2 carrier.

#Deficiency

▪️Interveinal complete chlorosis.

▪️Scorching of leaf margin.

▪️Yellowing of iron chlorosis in groundnut.

#Manganese

▪️Formation of chlorophyll.

▪️Co-factor of enzyme.

▪️Mn toxicity causes crinckle leaf of cotton.

#Deficiency

▪️Dead spot on leaves.

#Desease

▪️Marsh spot of pea.

▪️Pahala blight of sugarcane.

#Copper
@agricultureexams2020

▪️Compound of plastocyanin.

▪️Essential for photosynthesis/ respiration.Agriexams library

▪️Dieback and reclamation disease of cereals.

#Boron

▪️ Necessary for Pollen germination.

▪️Boron is the only non-metal element among the micronutrient.

▪️It is necessary for translocation of Sugars and is involved in reproduction and germination of pollen.

#Disease : due to deficiency

▪️Browning of cauliflower is caused by Boron deficiency.

▪️Top sickness of tobacco.

▪️Fruit cracking of tomato.

▪️Hard fruit of citrus.

▪️Hen and chick disease of grape.

#Zinc

▪️In plants it is required for biosynthesis of hormones.

▪️Zn deficiency causes-

-White bud of maize.
-Khaira disease of rice.
-Little leaf of cotton.
-Mottled leaf of citrus.
-Rosette formation.

#Cobalt

▪️It is component of Vitamin B

▪️It is essential for formation of type of hemoglobin in N-fixing nodule tissue known as leghaemogloin.

▪️Act as O2 carrier in roots.

▪️Also known as animal protein factor.

#Molybdenum

▪️Mo: absorbed as molybdate MoO4-2 forms.

▪️Mo is important component of enzyme: Nitrate reductage.

▪️N-fixation in pulses.

▪️Whiptail of cauliflower is due to deficiency of Mo.

▪️Mo is required for carrot & raphanus for sweetness.
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