UPSC Civil Services (IAS)
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This channel is created for UPSC CIVIL SERVICES EXAM.
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Exercise MALABAR

* It is an annual exercise between the navies of India, Japan, and the U.S. held alternately in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

* It began in 1992 as a bilateral exercise between India and the U.S.

* Then it got permanently expanded into a trilateral format with the inclusion of Japan in 2015.

# India and Japan defence forces organize a series of bilateral exercises namely, JIMEX, SHINYUU Maitri, and Dharma Guardian.

# Whereas India and USA conduct Joint Military Exercises namely, Yudha Abhyas.

@onlycivilservices
#Block_Sea

▪️ Black Sea

▪️Bordered by: Turkey, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Romania.

▪️The Black Sea is the world's largest body of water with a meromictic basin

▪️Remember as "Tea & BURGeR" (Turkey, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Romania).


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1) National Waterway Development Agency (NWDA) = Ministry of Jal Shakti + Under Societies Registration Act, 1860 + Task of National River Interlinking Project

2) Inland Waterways Authority of India(IWAI) = Ministry of Shipping + Statutory + Development of National waterways

@onlycivilservices
Minimum Support Price

-The MSP is the rate at which the government buys grains from farmers.

-Reason behind the idea of MSP is to counter price volatility of agricultural commodities due to the factors like variation in their supply, lack of market integration and information asymmetry.

-Fixation of MSP: The MSP is fixed for 23 crops based on the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), Ministry of Agriculture

@onlycivilservices
Goldilocks Zone

▪️A habitable zone, also called the “Goldilocks zone”, is the area around a star where it is not too hot and not too cold for liquid water to exist on the surface of surrounding planets.

▪️Our Earth is in the Sun’s Goldilocks zone. If Earth were where the dwarf planet Pluto is, all its water would freeze; on the other hand, if Earth were where Mercury is, all its water would boil off.
#First_In_India
(Female)

President-Pratibha Patil

PM&FM-Indira Gandhi

Governor of State-Sarojini Naidu

CM of State-Sucheta Kriplani

Ambassador-C.B Muthamma

Miss World-Rita Faria

Lok Sabha Speaker-Meira Kumar

In Space-Kalpana Chawla

IPS Officer-Kiran Bedi
World Happiness Report:

● Released by: United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network(SSDN).

● The report ranks countries by how happy their citizens perceive themselves to be.

● Indicators: The index uses the Gallup World Poll that asked people to vote on three indicators: Life Evaluations, Positive Emotions and Negative Emotions.

● Ranking: Finland has topped the index. India has been ranked 139 out of 149 countries in the index.
What are Dark Sirens ?

The Dark Sirens are nothing but gravitational waves from neutron stars or black holes. The Dark sirens can be picked up by gravitational wave detector but not by ordinary telescopes
🔰 OATHS AND RESIGNATIONS 🔰
========================

🔹 The President
➨ Oath - Chief Justice of India or in his absence the senior most Judge of Supreme Court.
➨ Resignation submitted to - Vice-President

🔹 Vice-President
➨ Oath - President or some person appointed in that behalf by the President.
➨ Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Prime Minister
➨ Oath - President
➨ Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Lok Sabha Speaker
➨ Oath - President
➨ Resignation submitted to - Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha

🔹 Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha
➨ Oath - President
➨ Resignation submitted to - Lok Sabha Speaker

🔹 Chief Election Commissioner
➨ Oath - President
➨ Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Attorney General
➨ Oath - President
➨ Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Comptroller and Auditor General
➨ Oath - President or some person appointed in that behalf by the President.
➨ Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Solicitor-General
➨ Oath - President
➨ Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Chairman, Public Service Commission
Oath - President
Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Chairman, Planning Commission
➨ Oath - President
➨ Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Members, Planning Commission
➨ Oath - Prime Minister
➨ Resignation submitted to - Prime Minister

🔹 Governor, RBI
➨ Oath - President
➨ Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Chief Minister
➨ Oath - Governor
➨ Resignation submitted to - Governor

🔹 Chief Justice of High Court
➨ Oath - Governor
➨ Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Other Judges of High Court
Oath - Governor
Resignation submitted to - President

🔹 Advocate General
➨ Oath - Governor
➨ Resignation submitted to - Governor

🔹 Accountant General
➨ Oath - Governor
➨ Resignation submitted to - Governor

🔹 Chairman, State Public Service Commission
➨ Oath - Governor
➨ Resignation submitted to - Governor

🔹 Members, State Public Service Commission
➨ Oath - Governor
➨ Resignation submitted to - Governor

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🔆BATTLE OF BUXAR (1764)

REASONS • Misuse of Dastaks by company servants.
🔸Imperial Farman gave right to trade in Bengal without paying transit dues or tolls.
🔸 Servants sold Dastaks to friendly merchants.
🔸 Hence, Mir Kasim abolished all duties.
🔸Tussle led to war between company and Mir Kasim in 1763. He fled to Awadh.
🔸Formed an alliance with Nawab of Awadh; Shuja-ud-daula and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.


BATTLE COURSE:English army led by Hector Munro.

RESULTS :Short and decisive battle won by the English army under Hector Munro.

OTHER :
🔸 Mir Jafar placed in throne as a mere puppet.
🔸 British supremacy was established in Northern India.
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves

Among the earliest Jain monuments are the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, located near the city of Bhubaneshwar in Orissa, India.

These caves are partly natural and partly manmade and were carved out as residential blocks for Jain monks during the reign of King Kharavela of Kalinga (193–170 BCE).

The caves bear inscriptions and sculptural friezes depicting Tirthankaras, elephants, women, and geese.

The Dilwara Temples

Built under Chalukya rule in Rajasthan between the 11th and 13th centuries CE, the Dilwara Temple complex consists of five ornately carved marble temples, each dedicated to a different Tirthankara.

The largest temple in the complex, the Vimal Vasahi Temple, was built in 1021 and is dedicated to the Tirthankara Rishabha.

Among its most remarkable features are the rang manda, a grand hall supported by 12 pillars and surmounted by a breathtaking central dome , and the navchowki, a collection of nine rectangular ceilings, also richly carved.

The pillars in the main hall are carved into the likenesses of women playing musical instruments and the 16 vidyadevis, or goddesses of knowledge; each holds a symbol representing her individual branch of learning
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves

Among the earliest Jain monuments are the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, located near the city of Bhubaneshwar in Orissa, India.

These caves are partly natural and partly manmade and were carved out as residential blocks for Jain monks during the reign of King Kharavela of Kalinga (193–170 BCE).

The caves bear inscriptions and sculptural friezes depicting Tirthankaras, elephants, women, and geese.

The Dilwara Temples

Built under Chalukya rule in Rajasthan between the 11th and 13th centuries CE, the Dilwara Temple complex consists of five ornately carved marble temples, each dedicated to a different Tirthankara.

The largest temple in the complex, the Vimal Vasahi Temple, was built in 1021 and is dedicated to the Tirthankara Rishabha.

Among its most remarkable features are the rang manda, a grand hall supported by 12 pillars and surmounted by a breathtaking central dome , and the navchowki, a collection of nine rectangular ceilings, also richly carved.

The pillars in the main hall are carved into the likenesses of women playing musical instruments and the 16 vidyadevis, or goddesses of knowledge; each holds a symbol representing her individual branch of learning
Purandardas

He was a Haridasa philosopher from Karnataka

He is considered as the father of Carnatic music

One of his most notable works is Dasa Sahithya

He introduced the RagaMayamalavagowla as the first scale to be learnt by beginners in the field – a practice that is still followed today.

Most of his keertanas deal with social reform and pinpoint the defects in society
🔺Top General Knowledge 🔺

Who wrote the book ‘Discovery of India’? – Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

Who discovered the ‘Gravitational’? – Newton

Who is the first Indian to receive Nobel Prize? – Ravinder Nath Tagore

What is the Dronacharya Award related to? – Best Coach in Sports/Games

Khajuraho is situated in-? – Madhya Pradesh

Does earth have one large natural satellite, known as? – Moon

Who played Gandhi’s role in the film ‘Gandhi’? – Ben Kingsley
Teachers’ Day is celebrated? – 5 September

When was the nuclear bomb dropped on Japan? – 1945
On which river is the clumsy Nangal dam? – Sutlej

India’s national flower? – Lotus
Dhanraj Pillai is related to which game? – hockey

In United Nations Organization (U.N.O), How many permanent members are in the Security Council? – 5

Which Indus Civilization is now in Pakistan? – Harappan

Which types of taxes were collected in South India, particularly the Maratha Empire during medieval times? – Chauth and Sardeshmukhi

Who started the ‘Bhoodan Movement’? – Vinoba Bhave

Who introduced English education in India? – Lord Mackay

Who is known as ‘Flying Sikh’? – Milkha Singh

Which vitamin is found in lemon and mangoes? – Vitamin ‘C’

How does the earth take to complete one revolution? – 365 ¼ days

Who gave the slogan ‘Inquilab Zindabad’?– Sardar Bhagat Singh

Who was the chairman of the draft constitution committee? – Dr. B. R. Ambedkar

What is the highest place in the three-level Panchayati Raj system? – District Council

What is the name of the currency in Srilanka? – Sri Lankan rupee

Who was the first Governor-General of India? – William Bentick

National Defence Academy is located in? – Dehradun

Who founded the “Ramakrishna Mission”? – Swami Vivekanand

Indian Standard Time is based on? – 82.5 °E longitude

Which state is situated in the eastern part of India? – Arunachal प्रदेश
Measures to improve air quality :

Improving public transport

Limiting the number of polluting vehicles on the road

Introducing less polluting fuel

Strict emission regulations

Improved efficiency for thermal power plants and industries

Moving from diesel generators to rooftop solar

Increased use of clean renewable energy

Electric vehicles

Removing dust from roads

Regulating construction activities

Stopping biomass burning, etc.
Neighboring countries on the land border of India

Trick "Bachpan me MBA kiya"

• BA - Bangladesh (4,096KM)

• Ch- China (3,917KM)

• Pa - Pakistan (3,310KM)

• N - Nepal (1,752KM).

• M - Myanmar (1,458KM)

• B - Bhutan

•A - Afghanistan (80KM)
🟢List of countries by length of coastline

1) Canada's coastline is world's longest, measuring 202,080 km (includes the mainland coast and the coasts of offshore islands)
2) Indonesia (99,083 km)
3) Norway (58,133 km)
4) Greenland* (44,087 km)
5) Russia (37,653 km)
6) Philippines (36,289 km)
7) Japan (29,751 km)
8) Australia (25,760 km)
9) United States (19,924 km)
10) Antarctica* (17,968 km)
11) New Zealand (15, 134 km)
12) China (14,500 km)
13) Greece (13,676 km)
14) United Kingdom (12,429 km)
15) Mexico (9330 km)
16) Italy (7782 km)
17) India (7516km)
Borrowed Features of Indian Constitution
From- U.K.
1. Nominal Head – President (like Queen)

2. Post of Prime Minister

3. Parliamentary Type of Govt.

4. Bicameral Parliament

5. Lower House more powerful

6. Single Citizenship

7. Speaker in Lok Sabha

8. Cabinet System of Ministers

From- U.S.A Written Constitution
1. Written Constitution

2. Vice President as the exoffice Chairman of Rajya Sabha

3. Fundamental Rights

4. Supreme Court

5. Provision of States

6. Independence of Judiciary and

7. judicial review

8. Preamble

9. Removal of the Supreme court and High court Judges

From-  USSR
1. Fundamental Duties

2. Five year Plan

From - AUSTRALIA
1. Concurrent list

2. Language of the preamble

3. Provision regarding trade, commerce and intercourse

From - JAPAN
1. Law on which the Supreme Court function

From -GERMANY
1. Suspension of Fundamental Rights during the emergency

From - CANADA
1. Scheme of federation with a strong centre

2. Distribution of powers between the centre and the states and placing. Residuary Powers with the centre

From IRELAND
1. Concept of Directive Principles of States Policy(Ireland borrowed it from SPAIN)

2. Method of election of President Nomination of members in the Rajya Sabha by the President
☑️ Important Ancient Indian History Notes ☑️
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Prithvisena I who was the son of Rudrasena I, Spent most of his time in consolidating his kingdom. He formed an alliance with Chandragupta II, and together they defeated the Shaka satraps of Malwa and Kathiawar.

The Buddha images found in Mathura were different from Sarnath in several ways. The dated stone image of a seated Tirthankara belonging to 432 CE which was excavated at Mathura was also different from the seated figurines of preceding centuries.

Halivakara during the Gupta period probably refers to plough tax. The Gupta period saw an increase in land taxes but the number of trade and commerce taxes decreased.

The empire of Chandragupta II included even the north-western India and Bengal as indicated by iron pillar inscription at Mehrauli in Delhi. He assumed the title of Vikramaditya which means the one who is as powerful as the sun.

Samudragupta issued coins showing him playing veena. Samudragupta celebrated his conquests by performing ashvamedha sacrifices or horse sacrifice. He also issued ashvamedha coins which portrayed the scene of the sacrifice.

Chandragupta – I claimed the title of maharajadhiraja (king of kings). He married a Lichchhavai princess. He was the son and successor of Ghatotkacha and was definitely a strong ruler.

Chandragupta – I reign started in c. 319 and lasted till 335/336 CE. He was the first important king of the Gupta Dynasty. He laid the foundations of the Gupta empire.

Kushan dynasty was founded by Kujula Kadphises or Kadphises I in the first century CE. Kanishka was the most famous of the Kushan kings and Vasudeva II  was the last Kushan emperor who ruled from 275 CE–300 CE.

Kanishka I or Kanishka the Great, was the most famous king of the Kushana Empire. He ruled the Kushan dynasty in the second century. He adopted the title ‘Devputra’ and has been shown wearing a ‘peaked helmet’ on some of his coins.

The Kushanas who were also called Guishuang in various Chinese texts and were one of the five tribes of Yueh-Chi or Yuezhi. Kujula Kadphises was the first Yueh Chi chief who crossed the Hindukush Mountains and founded the Kushana Empire.